PHP管理依賴(dependency)關係工具 Composer 安裝與使用

NO IMAGE

PHP Composer 安裝

系統需求:

Composer 需要PHP5.3.2 以上的環境來執行。有幾個敏感的PHP設定和編譯標誌也是必需的,但安裝程式會發出警告當存在任何不相容的情況。

比如PHP的擴充套件的要求是,安裝或重新編譯php without –disable-phar

為了從源地址安裝軟體包,而不是簡單的壓縮檔案包,您將需要安裝軟體包的版本控制工具,比如git、svn或hg等。

Composer 是相容多平臺的,其執行適用於Windows,Linux和OSX。

安裝失敗的錯誤訊息:


curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | PHP 
#!/usr/bin/env php 
some settings on your machine make Composer unable to work properly. 
Make sure that you fix the issues listed below and run this script again:
The phar extension is missing. 
Install it or recompile php without –disable-phar
Your PHP (5.2.9) is too old, you must upgrade to PHP 5.3.2 or higher.

我的本地預設開發環境是PHP 5.2.9,當我嘗試在PHP 5.2.9上安裝時,提示版本過低,需要升級到PHP 5.3.2 或者更高的版本。

於是我下載XAMPP 1.7.7 usb lite 版本。


E:\USB\Dropbox\phpstorm\php53>E:\USB\xampp_177\php\php.exe -v 
PHP 5.3.8 (cli) (built: Aug 23 2011 11:50:20) 
Copyright (c) 1997-2011 The PHP Group 
Zend Engine v2.3.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2011 Zend Technologies

XAMPP 1.7.7 下的PHP環境是5.3.8。確認我的PHP環境大於等於PHP5.3.2後。

PHP 5.3 安裝 Composer


E:\USB\Dropbox\phpstorm\php53>curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | E:\USB\xampp_177\php\php.exe 
#!/usr/bin/env php 
Some settings on your machine may cause stability issues with Composer. 
If you encounter issues, try to change the following:
The openssl extension is missing, which will reduce the security and stability o 
f Composer. 
If possible you should enable it or recompile php with –with-openssl
Downloading…
Composer successfully installed to: E:\USB\Dropbox\phpstorm\php53\composer.phar 
Use it: php composer.phar

注意:

我關閉了XAMPP 1.7.7 Apache的SSL模組,所以Composer提示我警告,為了安全因素建議我開啟SSL模組。不開啟也不影響使用。
安裝時的引數 | PHP,一定要更改為真實的PHP環境路徑,比如 | E:\USB\xampp_177\php\php.exe
使用Composer為PHP路徑 命令,在我們安裝的環境中,使用方法為:E:\USB\xampp_177\php/php.exe composer.phar 命令。
我安裝的環境是在Windows下,如果在Linux下,而PHP 5.3 環境也不在預設PHP命令下時,應該採用 | /usr/php/53/usr/bin/php,例如:


curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | /usr/php/53/usr/bin/php

安裝完成後,檢查安裝版本。


E:\USB\Dropbox\phpstorm\php53>E:\USB\xampp_177\php/php.exe composer.phar -V 
Composer version 0209bd31a0ac3aeb2a68fc81e2d03c71072bef33

檢查PHP Composer命令:


E:\USB\Dropbox\phpstorm\php53>E:\USB\xampp_177\php/php.exe composer.phar 
______ 
/ ____/___ ____ ___ ____ ____ ________ _____ 
/ /  / __ \/ __ `__ \/ __ \/ __ \/ ___/ _ \/ ___/ 
/ /___/ /_/ / / / / / / /_/ / /_/ (__ ) __/ / 
\____/\____/_/ /_/ /_/ .___/\____/____/\___/_/ 
/_/ 
Composer version 0209bd31a0ac3aeb2a68fc81e2d03c71072bef33
Usage: 
[options] command [arguments]
Options: 
–help      -h Display this help message. 
–quiet     -q Do not output any message. 
–verbose    -v Increase verbosity of messages. 
–version    -V Display this application version. 
–ansi       Force ANSI output. 
–no-ansi      Disable ANSI output. 
–no-interaction -n Do not ask any interactive question. 
–profile      Display timing and memory usage information 
–working-dir  -d If specified, use the given directory as working directory 
.
Available commands: 
about      Short information about Composer 
archive     Create an archive of this composer package 
config      Set config options 
create-project  Create new project from a package into given directory. 
depends     Shows which packages depend on the given package 
diagnose     Diagnoses the system to identify common errors. 
dump-autoload  Dumps the autoloader 
dumpautoload   Dumps the autoloader 
help       Displays help for a command 
init       Creates a basic composer.json file in current directory. 
install     Installs the project dependencies from the composer.lock file 
if present, or falls back on the composer.json. 
list       Lists commands 
require     Adds required packages to your composer.json and installs the 
m 
run-script    Run the scripts defined in composer.json. 
search      Search for packages 
self-update   Updates composer.phar to the latest version. 
selfupdate    Updates composer.phar to the latest version. 
show       Show information about packages 
status      Show a list of locally modified packages 
update      Updates your dependencies to the latest version according to 
composer.json, and updates the composer.lock file. 
validate     Validates a composer.json

這樣我們在PHP5.3環境下的Composer已經安裝完成。

類似的方法我們也可以安裝PHP 5.4的環境上。

PHP 5.4 安裝 Composer

下載XAMPP 1.8.1 usb lite 版本,將得到PHP5.4.7環境。


E:\USB\Dropbox\phpstorm\php53>E:\USB\xampp_181\php\php.exe -v 
PHP 5.4.7 (cli) (built: Sep 12 2012 23:48:31) 
Copyright (c) 1997-2012 The PHP Group 
Zend Engine v2.4.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2012 Zend Technologies

確定版本高於PHP 5.3.2 後,開始安裝:


E:\USB\Dropbox\phpstorm\php54>curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | E:\USB\xampp_181\php\php.exe 
#!/usr/bin/env php 
Some settings on your machine may cause stability issues with Composer. 
If you encounter issues, try to change the following:
The openssl extension is missing, which will reduce the security and stability o 
f Composer. 
If possible you should enable it or recompile php with –with-openssl
Downloading…
Composer successfully installed to: E:\USB\Dropbox\phpstorm\php54\composer.phar 
Use it: php composer.phar

安裝完成後,檢查安裝版本。


E:\USB\Dropbox\phpstorm\php54>E:\USB\xampp_181\php/php.exe composer.phar -V 
Composer version 0209bd31a0ac3aeb2a68fc81e2d03c71072bef33

這樣,PHP 5.4 環境下的Composer也安裝成功了。

PHP Composer 使用

這裡我只簡單演示使用PHP Composer安裝Symfony框架。

首先大概講解一下命令的標準格式:


php composer.phar create-project symfony/framework-standard-edition path/ 2.2.1

第一個引數PHP為本地PHP開發環境,指向PHP執行命令。
第二個引數,為composer.phar方式下載。
第三個引數,為動作命令,例如create-project,目的是為了建立一個新的專案從一個軟體包到指定目錄。
第四個引數,為本地安裝的目錄。
第五個引數,為安裝軟體包的版本。

根據上述我們在PHP5.4環境下安裝的Composer,我們的安裝命令為:


E:\USB\Dropbox\phpstorm\php54>E:\USB\xampp_181\php/php.exe composer.phar create-project symfony/framework-standard-edition E:\USB\xampp_181\htdocs\Symfony 2.2.1

安裝結果:


Installing symfony/framework-standard-edition (v2.2.1) 
– Installing symfony/framework-standard-edition (v2.2.1) 
Downloading: 100%
Created project in E:\USB\xampp_181\htdocs\Symfony 
Loading composer repositories with package information 
Installing dependencies from lock file 
– Installing doctrine/lexer (v1.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing doctrine/annotations (v1.1) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing doctrine/cache (v1.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing doctrine/collections (v1.1) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing twig/twig (v1.12.2) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing psr/log (1.0.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing doctrine/inflector (v1.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing doctrine/common (2.4.0-RC1) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing symfony/symfony (v2.2.1) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing jdorn/sql-formatter (v1.2.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing doctrine/dbal (2.3.3) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing doctrine/doctrine-bundle (v1.2.0-beta1) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing doctrine/orm (2.3.3) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing jms/cg (1.0.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing phpoption/phpoption (1.2.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing jms/parser-lib (1.0.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing jms/metadata (1.3.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing jms/aop-bundle (1.0.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing jms/di-extra-bundle (1.3.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing jms/security-extra-bundle (1.4.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing sensio/distribution-bundle (v2.2.1) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing sensio/framework-extra-bundle (v2.2.1) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing sensio/generator-bundle (v2.2.1) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing kriswallsmith/assetic (v1.1.0-alpha4) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing symfony/assetic-bundle (v2.1.2) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing monolog/monolog (1.4.1) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing symfony/monolog-bundle (v2.2.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing swiftmailer/swiftmailer (v4.3.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing symfony/swiftmailer-bundle (v2.2.0) 
Downloading: 100%
– Installing twig/extensions (v1.0.0) 
Downloading: 100%
kriswallsmith/assetic suggests installing leafo/lessphp (Assetic provides the integration with the lessphp LESS compiler) 
kriswallsmith/assetic suggests installing leafo/scssphp (Assetic provides the integration with the scssphp SCSS compiler) 
kriswallsmith/assetic suggests installing leafo/scssphp-compass (Assetic provides the integration with the SCSS compass plugin) 
kriswallsmith/assetic suggests installing ptachoire/cssembed (Assetic provides the integration with phpcssembed to embed data uris) 
monolog/monolog suggests installing doctrine/couchdb (Allow sending log messages to a CouchDB server) 
monolog/monolog suggests installing ext-amqp (Allow sending log messages to an AMQP server (1.0  required)) 
monolog/monolog suggests installing ext-mongo (Allow sending log messages to a MongoDB server) 
monolog/monolog suggests installing mlehner/gelf-php (Allow sending log messages to a GrayLog2 server) 
monolog/monolog suggests installing raven/raven (Allow sending log messages to a Sentry server) 
Generating autoload files 
Clearing the cache for the dev environment with debug true 
Installing assets using the hard copy option 
Installing assets for Symfony\Bundle\FrameworkBundle into web/bundles/framework 
Installing assets for Acme\DemoBundle into web/bundles/acmedemo 
Installing assets for Sensio\Bundle\DistributionBundle into web/bundles/sensiodistribution

從命令列結果,我們看到了整個Symfony框架的安裝過程與結果。

PHP Composer 定義依賴關係

Composer在使用時會自動尋找composer.json這個檔案。 composer.json將用來定義整個專案的依賴包。例如:


{ 
"require": { 
"monolog/monolog": "1.2.*" 
} 
}

依賴包簡單的說明,我們的專案需要一些從1.2開始的任何版本的monolog/monolog包。

Composer是PHP中的一個依賴關係管理工具。通過Composer我們可以在釋出軟體時節省大量的檔案數目和控制依賴包的版本。

PHP Composer 專案

Composer 專案官方:http://getcomposer.org

Composer Github專案:https://github.com/composer/composer

PHP Composer軟體包列表:https://packagist.org/

您可能感興趣的文章:

LAMP環境使用Composer安裝Laravel的方法CI框架使用composer安裝的依賴包步驟與方法分析使用Composer安裝Yii框架的方法從零開始學YII2框架(二)通過 Composer 安裝擴充套件外掛從零開始學YII2框架(一)通過Composer安裝Yii2框架windows環境下使用Composer安裝ThinkPHP5